COVID-19 Vaccines: Current Status and Implication for Use in Indonesia

Youdiil Ophinni, Anshari Saifuddin Hasibuan, Alvina Widhani, Suzy Maria, Sukamto Koesnoe, Evy Yunihastuti, Teguh H Karjadi, Iris Rengganis, Samsuridjal Djauzi


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has inflicted catastrophic damages in public health, economic and social stability—putting life globally on hold in 2020 and presumably a year more. Indonesia bears a heavy burden of the pandemic, counting the highest case prevalence and fatality rate in all of Southeast Asia. One hope remains in the groundbreaking universal effort in search of a vaccine against the causative virus SARS-CoV-2, which has shown success unparalleled in human vaccine development thus far. An array of modalities including novel techniques are being utilized as vaccine platforms, with the closest to phase III clinical trial completion being mRNA (manufactured by Moderna and BioNTech/Pfizer), inactivated virus (Sinovac, Sinopharm), viral vector (Oxford/AstraZeneca, Gamaleya, Janssen/Johnson&Johnson, CanSino), and protein subunit (Novavax). The vaccine produced by BioNTech/Pfizer has been deployed to the public as the first ever licensed COVID-19 vaccine. In this review, we will review all of these modalities on their safety and immunogenicity, phase II/III trial results of the nine vaccine candidates and current situation as of 29 December 2020, as well as the implication for use and distribution in Indonesia. COVID-19 vaccine progress, however, is moving exceedingly fast and new advances are unfolding on a daily basis, to which we hope an update to this review can be published in early 2021.


vaccine; COVID-19; Indonesia


Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, et al. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med. 2020 Feb 20;382(8):727–33.

WHO Statement regarding cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China [Internet]. [cited 2020 Dec 17]. Available from:

WHO Director-General’s opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 - 11 March 2020 [Internet]. [cited 2020 Dec 17]. Available from:

Roser M, Ritchie H, Ortiz-Ospina E, Hasell J. Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19). Our World in Data [Internet]. 2020 Mar 4 [cited 2020 Dec 17]; Available from:

Setiati S, Azwar MK. Dilemma of prioritising health and the economy during COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. Acta Med Indones. 2020 Jul;52(3):196–8.

Erdem H, Lucey DR. Healthcare worker infections and deaths due to COVID-19: A survey from 37 nations and a call for WHO to post national data on their website. Int J Infect Dis. 2020 Oct 29;102:239–41.

Natalia DL. Presiden: Ibu-anak warga Indonesia positif COVID-19 [Internet]. Antara. 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 17]. Available from:

Khan S, Nakajima R, Jain A, et al. Analysis of serologic cross-reactivity between common human coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2 using coronavirus antigen microarray. bioRxiv [Internet]. 2020 Mar 25; Available from:

To KK-W, Cheng VC-C, Cai J-P, et al. Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in Hong Kong and in residents evacuated from Hubei province, China: a multicohort study. Lancet Microbe. 2020 Jul;1(3):e111–8.

Le Bert N, Tan AT, Kunasegaran K, et al. SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell immunity in cases of COVID-19 and SARS, and uninfected controls. Nature. 2020 Aug;584(7821):457–62.

Mateus J, Grifoni A, Tarke A, et al. Selective and cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2 T cell epitopes in unexposed humans. Science. 2020 Oct 2;370(6512):89–94.

Weiskopf D, Schmitz KS, Raadsen MP, et al. Phenotype of SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cells in COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome [Internet]. medRxiv; 2020. Available from:

Braun J, Loyal L, Frentsch M, et al. Presence of SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells in COVID-19 patients and healthy donors [Internet]. medRxiv; 2020. p. 19. Available from:

Meckiff BJ, Ramírez-Suástegui C, Fajardo V, et al. Single-cell transcriptomic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 reactive CD4+ T cells [Internet]. bioRxiv; 2020. Available from:

Beretta A, Cranage M, Zipeto D. Is cross-reactive immunity triggering COVID-19 immunopathogenesis? Front Immunol. 2020 Oct 15;11:567710.

Sette A, Crotty S. Pre-existing immunity to SARS-CoV-2: the knowns and unknowns. Nat Rev Immunol. 2020 Aug;20(8):457–8.

Fajgenbaum DC, June CH. Cytokine storm. N Engl J Med. 2020 Dec 3;383(23):2255–73.

Rumende CM, Susanto EC, Sitorus TP. The management of cytokine storm in COVID-19. Acta Med Indones. 2020 Jul;52(3):306–13.

Blanco-Melo D, Nilsson-Payant BE, Liu W-C, et al. Imbalanced host response to SARS-CoV-2 drives development of COVID-19. Cell. 2020 May 28;181(5):1036–45.e9.

Rydyznski-Moderbacher C, Ramirez SI, Dan JM, et al. Antigen-specific adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in acute COVID-19 and associations with age and disease severity. Cell. 2020 Nov 12;183(4):996–1012.e19.

Wang Z, Pan H, Jiang B. Type I IFN deficiency: an immunological characteristic of severe COVID-19 patients. Signal Transduct Target Ther. 2020 Sep 14;5(1):198.

Yang L, Liu S, Liu J, et al. COVID-19: immunopathogenesis and immunotherapeutics. Signal Transduct Target Ther. 2020 Jul 25;5(1):128.

Pietrobon AJ, Teixeira FME, Sato MN. Immunosenescence and inflammaging: Risk factors of severe COVID-19 in older people. Front Immunol. 2020 Oct 27;11:579220.

Hadjadj J, Yatim N, Barnabei L, et al. Impaired type I interferon activity and inflammatory responses in severe COVID-19 patients. Science. 2020 Aug 7;369(6504):718–24.

Takahashi T, Ellingson MK, Wong P, et al. Sex differences in immune responses that underlie COVID-19 disease outcomes. Nature. 2020 Aug 26;588(7837):315–20.

Wajnberg A, Amanat F, Firpo A, et al. Robust neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 infection persist for months. Science. 2020 Dec 4;370(6521):1227–30.

Dan JM, Mateus J, Kato Y, Hastie KM, Faliti C. Immunological memory to SARS-CoV-2 assessed for greater than six months after infection. bioRxiv [Internet]. 2020; Available from:

Rodda LB, Netland J, Shehata L, et al. Functional SARS-CoV-2-specific immune memory persists after mild COVID-19. Cell. 2020 Nov 23;S0092-8674(20):31565–8.

Nguyen-Contant P, Embong AK, Kanagaiah P, et al. S protein-reactive IgG and memory B cell production after human SARS-CoV-2 infection includes broad reactivity to the S2 subunit. MBio. 2020 Sep 25;11(5):e01991–20.

Sterlin D, Mathian A, Miyara M, et al. IgA dominates the early neutralizing antibody response to SARS-CoV-2. Sci Transl Med. 2020 Dec 7;eabd2223.

Du L, He Y, Zhou Y, Liu S, Zheng B-J, Jiang S. The spike protein of SARS-CoV--a target for vaccine and therapeutic development. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2009 Mar;7(3):226–36.

Iwasaki A, Yang Y. The potential danger of suboptimal antibody responses in COVID-19. Nat Rev Immunol. 2020 Jun;20(6):339–41.

Lan J, Ge J, Yu J, et al. Structure of the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain bound to the ACE2 receptor. Nature. 2020 May;581(7807):215–20.

Chi X, Yan R, Zhang J, et al. A neutralizing human antibody binds to the N-terminal domain of the Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Science. 2020 Aug 7;369(6504):650–5.

Pallesen J, Wang N, Corbett KS, et al. Immunogenicity and structures of a rationally designed prefusion MERS-CoV spike antigen. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Aug 29;114(35):E7348–57.

Song W, Gui M, Wang X, Xiang Y. Cryo-EM structure of the SARS coronavirus spike glycoprotein in complex with its host cell receptor ACE2. PLoS Pathog. 2018 Aug;14(8):e1007236.

Shi R, Shan C, Duan X, et al. A human neutralizing antibody targets the receptor-binding site of SARS-CoV-2. Nature. 2020 Aug;584(7819):120–4.

Yuan M, Wu NC, Zhu X, et al. A highly conserved cryptic epitope in the receptor binding domains of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. Science. 2020 May 8;368(6491):630–3.

Novel 2019 coronavirus genome [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 17]. Available from:

Ou X, Liu Y, Lei X, et al. Characterization of spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 on virus entry and its immune cross-reactivity with SARS-CoV. Nat Commun. 2020 Mar 27;11(1):1620.

Hoffmann M, Kleine-Weber H, Pöhlmann S. A multibasic cleavage site in the Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 is essential for infection of human lung cells. Mol Cell. 2020 May 21;78(4):779–84.e5.

Coutard B, Valle C, de Lamballerie X, Canard B, Seidah NG, Decroly E. The spike glycoprotein of the new coronavirus 2019-nCoV contains a furin-like cleavage site absent in CoV of the same clade. Antiviral Res. 2020 Apr;176:104742.

Dearlove B, Lewitus E, Bai H, et al. A SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate would likely match all currently circulating variants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Sep 22;117(38):23652–62.

World Health Organization. Draft landscape of COVID-19 candidate vaccines [Internet]. WHO. [cited 2020 Dec 18]. Available from:

Krammer F. SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in development. Nature. 2020 Oct;586(7830):516–27.

Day PM, Kines RC, Thompson CD, et al. In vivo mechanisms of vaccine-induced protection against HPV infection. Cell Host Microbe. 2010 Sep 16;8(3):260–70.

Cunningham AL, Heineman TC, Lal H, et al. Immune responses to a recombinant glycoprotein E herpes zoster vaccine in adults aged 50 years or older. J Infect Dis. 2018 May 5;217(11):1750–60.

Burton DR, Topol EJ. Toward superhuman SARS-CoV-2 immunity? Nat Med. 2020 Nov 30;s41591.

Jackson LA, Anderson EJ, Rouphael NG, et al. An mRNA vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 - preliminary report. N Engl J Med. 2020 Nov 12;383(20):1920–31.

Mulligan MJ, Lyke KE, Kitchin N, et al. Phase I/II study of COVID-19 RNA vaccine BNT162b1 in adults. Nature. 2020 Oct;586(7830):589–93.

Keech C, Albert G, Cho I, et al. Phase 1-2 trial of a SARS-CoV-2 recombinant Spike protein nanoparticle vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2020 Dec 10;383(24):2320–32.

Oran DP, Topol EJ. Prevalence of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection: A narrative review. Ann Intern Med. 2020 Sep 1;173(5):362–7.

Verity R, Okell LC, Dorigatti I, et al. Estimates of the severity of coronavirus disease 2019: a model-based analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Jun;20(6):669–77.

Clark A, Jit M, Warren-Gash C, et al. Global, regional, and national estimates of the population at increased risk of severe COVID-19 due to underlying health conditions in 2020: a modelling study. Lancet Glob Health. 2020 Aug;8(8):e1003–17.

Lindner D, Fitzek A, Bräuninger H, et al. Association of cardiac infection with SARS-CoV-2 in confirmed COVID-19 autopsy cases. JAMA Cardiol. 2020 Nov 1;5(11):1281–5.

Braun F, Lütgehetmann M, Pfefferle S, et al. SARS-CoV-2 renal tropism associates with acute kidney injury. Lancet. 2020 Aug 29;396(10251):597–8.

Lamers MM, Beumer J, van der Vaart J, et al. SARS-CoV-2 productively infects human gut enterocytes. Science. 2020 Jul 3;369(6499):50–4.

Gupta A, Madhavan MV, Sehgal K, et al. Extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19. Nat Med. 2020 Jul;26(7):1017–32.

Cantuti-Castelvetri L, Ojha R, Pedro LD, et al. Neuropilin-1 facilitates SARS-CoV-2 cell entry and infectivity. Science. 2020 Nov 13;370(6518):856–60.

Zhang B-Z, Chu H, Han S, et al. SARS-CoV-2 infects human neural progenitor cells and brain organoids. Cell Res. 2020 Oct;30(10):928–31.

Severe Covid-19 GWAS Group, Ellinghaus D, Degenhardt F, Bujanda L, et al. Genomewide association study of severe Covid-19 with respiratory failure. N Engl J Med. 2020 Oct 15;383(16):1522–34.

Russo R, Andolfo I, Lasorsa VA, Iolascon A, Capasso M. Genetic analysis of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 host protease TMPRSS2 in different populations. Front Genet. 2020 Aug 4;11:872.

Sa Ribero M, Jouvenet N, Dreux M, Nisole S. Interplay between SARS-CoV-2 and the type I interferon response. PLoSPathog. 2020 Jul;16(7):e1008737.

Pairo-Castineira E, Clohisey S, Klaric L, et al. Genetic mechanisms of critical illness in Covid-19. Nature. 2020 Dec 11;s41586.

Fontanet A, Cauchemez S. COVID-19 herd immunity: where are we? Nat Rev Immunol. 2020;20(10):583–4.

BNO News. COVID-19 reinfection tracker [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 19]. Available from:

To KK-W, Hung IF-N, Ip JD, et al. COVID-19 re-infection by a phylogenetically distinct SARS-coronavirus-2 strain confirmed by whole genome sequencing. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Aug 25;ciaa1275.

Cevik M, Tate M, Lloyd O, Maraolo AE, Schafers J, Ho A. SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV viral load dynamics, duration of viral shedding, and infectiousness: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Microbe. 2020 Nov 19;0(0):s2666.

Iyer AS, Jones FK, Nodoushani A, et al. Persistence and decay of human antibody responses to the receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in COVID-19 patients. Sci Immunol. 2020 Oct 8;5(52):eabe0367.

Self WH, Tenforde MW, Stubblefield WB, et al. Decline in SARS-CoV-2 antibodies after mild infection among frontline health care personnel in a multistate hospital network - 12 states, April-August 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Nov 27;69(47):1762–6.

Ibarrondo FJ, Fulcher JA, Goodman-Meza D, et al. Rapid decay of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in persons with mild Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020 Sep 10;383(11):1085–7.

Lucas C, Klein J, Sundaram M, Liu F, Wong P, Silva J, et al. Kinetics of antibody responses dictate COVID-19 outcome [Internet]. medRxiv. 2020. Available from:

Zohar T, Loos C, Fischinger S, Atyeo C, Wang C, Slein MD, et al. Compromised humoral functional evolution tracks with SARS-CoV-2 mortality. Cell. 2020 Dec 10;183(6):1508–19.

Pollard AJ, Bijker EM. A guide to vaccinology: from basic principles to new developments. Nat Rev Immunol. 2020 Dec 22;s41577–020 – 00479–7.

Sok D, Burton DR. Recent progress in broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV. Nat Immunol. 2018 Nov;19(11):1179–88.

Ophinni Y. SARS-CoV-2 mutation and dissemination in Southeast Asia: implications for a prospective vaccine. CSEAS Newsletter [Internet]. 2020 Jun 14 [cited 2020 Dec 17];(78). Available from:

Dilucca M, Forcelloni S, Georgakilas AG, Giansanti A, Pavlopoulou A. Codon usage and phenotypic divergences of SARS-CoV-2 genes. Viruses. 2020 Apr 30;12(5):498.

Hachim A, Kavian N, Cohen CA, et al. ORF8 and ORF3b antibodies are accurate serological markers of early and late SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nat Immunol. 2020 Oct;21(10):1293–301.

Park MD. Immune evasion via SARS-CoV-2 ORF8 protein? Nat Rev Immunol. 2020 Jul;20(7):408.

Zhang Y, Zhang J, Chen Y, et al. The ORF8 protein of SARS-CoV-2 mediates immune evasion through potently downregulating MHC-I [Internet]. bioRxiv; 2020. Available from:

Henderson R, Edwards RJ, Mansouri K, Janowska K, Stalls V, Gobeil SMC, et al. Controlling the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein conformation. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2020 Oct;27(10):925–33.

Lu M, Uchil PD, Li W, Zheng D, Terry DS, Gorman J, et al. Real-time conformational dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 spikes on virus particles. Cell Host Microbe. 2020 Dec 9;28(6):880–91.e8.

Barnes CO, Jette CA, Abernathy ME, Dam K-MA, Esswein SR, Gristick HB, et al. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody structures inform therapeutic strategies. Nature. 2020 Oct 12;s41586.

Callaway E. The coronavirus is mutating - does it matter? Nature. 2020 Sep;585(7824):174–7.

Walsh EE, Frenck RW Jr, Falsey AR, Kitchin N, Absalon J, Gurtman A, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of two RNA-based Covid-19 vaccine candidates. N Engl J Med. 2020 Dec 17;383(25):2439–50.

Bangaru S, Ozorowski G, Turner HL, Antanasijevic A, Huang D, Wang X, et al. Structural analysis of full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike protein from an advanced vaccine candidate. Science. 2020 Nov 27;370(6520):1089–94.

Mercado NB, Zahn R, Wegmann F, Loos C, Chandrashekar A, Yu J, et al. Single-shot Ad26 vaccine protects against SARS-CoV-2 in rhesus macaques. Nature. 2020 Oct;586(7830):583–8.

Turoňová B, Sikora M, Schürmann C, Hagen WJH, Welsch S, Blanc FEC, et al. In situ structural analysis of SARS-CoV-2 spike reveals flexibility mediated by three hinges. Science. 2020 Oct 9;370(6513):203–8.

Cai Y, Zhang J, Xiao T, Peng H, Sterling SM, Walsh RM Jr, et al. Distinct conformational states of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Science. 2020 Sep 25;369(6511):1586–92.

Gao Q, Bao L, Mao H, Wang L, Xu K, Yang M, et al. Development of an inactivated vaccine candidate for SARS-CoV-2. Science. 2020 Jul 3;369(6499):77–81.

Totura AL, Whitmore A, Agnihothram S, Schäfer A, Katze MG, Heise MT, et al. Toll-Like Receptor 3 signaling via TRIF contributes to a protective innate immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection. MBio. 2015 May 26;6(3):e00638–15.

Hu Y, Li W, Gao T, et al. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Inhibits Type I Interferon Production by Interfering with TRIM25-Mediated RIG-I Ubiquitination. J Virol [Internet]. 2017 Apr 15;91(8). Available from:

Chang C-Y, Liu HM, Chang M-F, Chang SC. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus nucleocapsid protein suppresses type I and type III interferon induction by targeting RIG-I signaling. J Virol [Internet]. 2020 Jun 16;94(13). Available from:

Tatsis N, Ertl HCJ. Adenoviruses as vaccine vectors. Mol Ther. 2004 Oct;10(4):616–29.

Iwasaki A, Omer SB. Why and how vaccines work. Cell. 2020 Oct 15;183(2):290–5.

Bode C, Zhao G, Steinhagen F, Kinjo T, Klinman DM. CpG DNA as a vaccine adjuvant. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2011 Apr;10(4):499–511.

Magnusson SE, Altenburg AF, Bengtsson KL, et al. Matrix-MTM adjuvant enhances immunogenicity of both protein- and modified vaccinia virus Ankara-based influenza vaccines in mice. Immunol Res. 2018 Apr;66(2):224–33.

Gordon D, Kelley P, Heinzel S, Cooper P, Petrovsky N. Immunogenicity and safety of AdvaxTM, a novel polysaccharide adjuvant based on delta inulin, when formulated with hepatitis B surface antigen: a randomized controlled Phase 1 study. Vaccine. 2014 Nov 12;32(48):6469–77.

Gupta T, Gupta SK. Potential adjuvants for the development of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine based on experimental results from similar coronaviruses. Int Immunopharmacol. 2020 Sep;86:106717.

Rengganis I, Soegiarto G, Sinto R. Aspek imunologis imunisasi. In: Djauzi S, Rengganis I, Sundoro J, Koesnoe S, Soegiarto G, Maria S, editors. Pedoman imunisasi dewasa 2017. Jakarta: Interna Publishing; 2017. p. 37–54.

Sanders B, Koldijk M, Schuitemaker H. Inactivated viral vaccines. In: Nunnally BK, Turula VE, Sitrin RD, editors. Vaccine Analysis: Strategies, Principles, and Control. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg; 2015. p. 45–80.

Lee WS, Wheatley AK, Kent SJ, DeKosky BJ. Antibody-dependent enhancement and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and therapies. Nat Microbiol. 2020 Oct;5(10):1185–91.

Walsh EE, Frenck R, Falsey AR, et al. RNA-based COVID-19 vaccine BNT162b2 selected for a pivotal efficacy study. medRxiv [Internet]. 2020 Aug 20; Available from:

Corbett KS, Edwards DK, Leist SR, et al. SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine design enabled by prototype pathogen preparedness. Nature. 2020 Oct;586(7830):567–71.

Anderson EJ, Rouphael NG, Widge AT, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-1273 vaccine in older adults. N Engl J Med. 2020 Dec 17;383(25):2427–38.

Widge AT, Rouphael NG, Jackson LA, et al. Durability of responses after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-1273 vaccination. N Engl J Med. 2020 Dec 3;NEJMc2032195.

van Doremalen N, Lambe T, Spencer A, et al. ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine prevents SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in rhesus macaques. Nature. 2020 Oct;586(7830):578–82.

Folegatti PM, Ewer KJ, Aley PK, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2: a preliminary report of a phase 1/2, single-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2020 Aug 15;396(10249):467–78.

Barrett JR, Belij-Rammerstorfer S, Dold C, et al. Phase 1/2 trial of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 with a booster dose induces multifunctional antibody responses. Nat Med. 2020 Dec 17;s41591.

Ramasamy MN, Minassian AM, Ewer KJ, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine administered in a prime-boost regimen in young and old adults (COV002): a single-blind, randomised, controlled, phase 2/3 trial. Lancet. 2020 Nov 18;396(10267):1979–93.

Voysey M, Clemens SAC, Madhi SA, et al. Safety and efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AZD1222) against SARS-CoV-2: an interim analysis of four randomised controlled trials in Brazil, South Africa, and the UK. Lancet. 2020 Dec 8;S0140–6736(20)32661–1.

Logunov DY, Dolzhikova IV, Zubkova OV, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of an rAd26 and rAd5 vector-based heterologous prime-boost COVID-19 vaccine in two formulations: two open, non-randomised phase 1/2 studies from Russia. Lancet. 2020 Sep 26;396(10255):887–97.

Bos R, Rutten L, van der Lubbe JEM, et al. Ad26 vector-based COVID-19 vaccine encoding a prefusion-stabilized SARS-CoV-2 Spike immunogen induces potent humoral and cellular immune responses. NPJ Vaccines. 2020 Sep 28;5:91.

Sadoff J, Le Gars M, Shukarev G, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of the Ad26.COV2.S COVID-19 vaccine candidate: interim results of a phase 1/2a, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial [Internet]. bioRxiv. medRxiv; 2020. Available from:

Zhu F-C, Li Y-H, Guan X-H, Hou L-H, Wang W-J, Li J-X, et al. Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant adenovirus type-5 vectored COVID-19 vaccine: a dose-escalation, open-label, non-randomised, first-in-human trial. Lancet. 2020 Jun 13;395(10240):1845–54.

Zhu F-C, Guan X-H, Li Y-H, Huang J-Y, Jiang T, Hou L-H, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of a recombinant adenovirus type-5-vectored COVID-19 vaccine in healthy adults aged 18 years or older: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial. Lancet. 2020 Aug 15;396(10249):479–88.

Zhang Y, Zeng G, Pan H, et al. Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in healthy adults aged 18-59 years: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1/2 clinical trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Nov 17;S1473–3099(20)30843–4.

Li J-X, Song Y-F, Wang L, et al. Two-year efficacy and immunogenicity of Sinovac Enterovirus 71 vaccine against hand, foot and mouth disease in children. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2016;15(1):129–37.

Wang H, Zhang Y, Huang B, et al. Development of an inactivated vaccine candidate, BBIBP-CorV, with potent protection against SARS-CoV-2. Cell. 2020 Aug 6;182(3):713–21.e9.

Xia S, Zhang Y, Wang Y, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, BBIBP-CorV: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1/2 trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Oct 15;S1473-3099(20):30831–8.

Ura T, Okuda K, Shimada M. Developments in viral vector-based vaccines. Vaccines (Basel). 2014 Jul 29;2(3):624–41.

Gsell P-S, Camacho A, Kucharski AJ, et al. Ring vaccination with rVSV-ZEBOV under expanded access in response to an outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, 2016: an operational and vaccine safety report. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017 Dec;17(12):1276–84.

Thomas SJ, Yoon I-K. A review of Dengvaxia®: development to deployment. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2019 Oct 7;15(10):2295–314.

Pollard AJ, Launay O, Lelievre J-D, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of a two-dose heterologous Ad26.ZEBOV and MVA-BN-Filo Ebola vaccine regimen in adults in Europe (EBOVAC2): a randomised, observer-blind, participant-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Nov 17;S1473–3099(20)30476 – X.

Mennechet FJD, Paris O, Ouoba AR, et al. A review of 65 years of human adenovirus seroprevalence. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2019 Jun;18(6):597–613.

Sekaly R-P. The failed HIV Merck vaccine study: a step back or a launching point for future vaccine development? J Exp Med. 2008 Jan 21;205(1):7–12.

Singh S, Kumar R, Agrawal B. Adenoviral vector-based vaccines and gene therapies: Current status and future prospects. Adenoviruses. 2019;(Chapter 4):53–91.

Capone S, Raggioli A, Gentile M, et al. Immunogenicity of a new gorilla adenovirus vaccine candidate for COVID-19 [Internet]. bioRxiv; 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 19]. p. 2020.10.22.349951. Available from:

Hassan AO, Kafai NM, Dmitriev IP, et al. A single-dose intranasal ChAd vaccine protects upper and lower respiratory tracts against SARS-CoV-2. Cell. 2020 Oct 1;183(1):169–84.e13.

Routhu NK, Gangadhara S, Cheedarla N, Shiferaw A. Modified vaccinia Ankara based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine expressing full-length spike induces strong neutralizing antibody response. BioRxiv [Internet]. 2020; Available from:

Loes AN, Gentles LE, Greaney AJ, Crawford KHD, Bloom JD. Attenuated influenza virions expressing the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain induce neutralizing antibodies in mice. Viruses. 2020 Sep 5;12(9):987.

Folegatti PM, Bittaye M, Flaxman A, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of a candidate Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus viral-vectored vaccine: a dose-escalation, open-label, non-randomised, uncontrolled, phase 1 trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Jul;20(7):816–26.

Dicks MDJ, Spencer AJ, Edwards NJ, et al. A novel chimpanzee adenovirus vector with low human seroprevalence: improved systems for vector derivation and comparative immunogenicity. PLoS One. 2012 Jul 13;7(7):e40385.

Kutzler MA, Weiner DB. DNA vaccines: ready for prime time? Nat Rev Genet. 2008 Oct;9(10):776–88.

Pardi N, Hogan MJ, Porter FW, Weissman D. mRNA vaccines - a new era in vaccinology. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2018 Apr;17(4):261–79.

Fabre A-L, Colotte M, Luis A, Tuffet S, Bonnet J. An efficient method for long-term room temperature storage of RNA. Eur J Hum Genet. 2014 Mar;22(3):379–85.

Vogel AB, Kanevsky I, Che Y, et al. A prefusion SARS-CoV-2 spike RNA vaccine is highly immunogenic and prevents lung infection in non-human primates [Internet]. bioRxiv; 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 19]. p. 2020.09.08.280818. Available from:

Liu G, Carter B, Gifford DK. Predicted cellular immunity population coverage gaps for SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccines and their augmentation by compact peptide sets. Cell Systems. 2020 Nov 27;S2405–4712(20)30460–1.

Amanat F, Stadlbauer D, Strohmeier S, et al. A serological assay to detect SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in humans. medRxiv [Internet]. 2020 Apr 16; Available from:

Gara N, Abdalla A, Rivera E, et al. Durability of antibody response against hepatitis B virus in healthcare workers vaccinated as adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Feb 15;60(4):505–13.

Wadman M. Will a small, long-shot U.S. company end up producing the best coronavirus vaccine? [Internet]. Science. 2020. Available from:

Tian J-H, Patel N, Haupt R, et al. SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein vaccine candidate NVX-CoV2373 elicits immunogenicity in baboons and protection in mice [Internet]. bioRxiv; 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 19]. p. 2020.06.29.178509. Available from:

Anonymous. Bio Farma aims to submit interim review on Sinovac vaccine in January. {The Jakarta Post} [Internet]. 2020 Nov 21 [cited 2020 Dec 19]; Available from:

Anonymous. BPOM to extend monitoring stage of Sinovac vaccine trial for next three months. {The Jakarta Post} [Internet]. 2020 Dec 15 [cited 2020 Dec 19]; Available from:

Turkey says China’s Sinovac COVID vaccine 91.25% effective in late trials. Reuters [Internet]. 2020 Dec 24 [cited 2020 Dec 28]; Available from:

Tani S. Jokowi pledges free COVID vaccinations for all Indonesians. Nikkei Asia [Internet]. 2020 Dec 16 [cited 2020 Dec 20]; Available from:

Anonymous. 1.2M doses of China-made COVID vaccine arrive in Indonesia. Associated Press [Internet]. 2020 Dec 6 [cited 2020 Dec 8]; Available from:

Anonymous. Sinovac’s coronavirus vaccine candidate approved for emergency use in China - source. Reuters [Internet]. 2020 Aug 28 [cited 2020 Dec 19]; Available from:

UAE Ministry of Health and Prevention. UAE Ministry of Health and Prevention announces official registration of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine used in #4Humanity Trials [Internet]. WAM. 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 19]. Available from:

Anonymous. China Sinopharm chief rules out high price for coronavirus vaccine. The Jakarta Post [Internet]. 2020 Aug 18 [cited 2020 Dec 20]; Available from:

Moderna Therapeutics. Moderna’s COVID-19 vaccine candidate meets its primary efficacy endpoint in the first interim analysis of the Phase 3 COVE study [Internet]. Moderna. 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 19]. Available from:

Moderna Therapeutics. Moderna announces first participants dosed in phase 2/3 study of COVID-19 vaccine candidate in adolescents [Internet]. Moderna. 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 19]. Available from:

Food and Drug Administration. VRBPAC December 17, 2020 Meeting Announcement [Internet]. FDA. 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 19]. Available from:

Moderna Therapeutics. Moderna announces longer shelf life for its COVID-19 vaccine candidate at refrigerated temperatures [Internet]. Moderna. 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 20]. Available from:

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA takes additional action in fight against COVID-19 by issuing emergency use authorization for second COVID-19 vaccine [Internet]. FDA; 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 29]. Available from:

Polack FP, Thomas SJ, Kitchin N, et al. Safety and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2020 Dec 10;NEJMoa2034577.

Food and Drug Administration. VRBPAC December 10, 2020 Meeting Announcement [Internet]. FDA. 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 20]. Available from:

Barston S. Cracking the cold case [Internet]. Walgreens Newsroom. [cited 2020 Dec 20]. Available from:

Herper M, Goldhill O, Chakradhar S, Goshua A. U.K. approves Pfizer’s Covid-19 vaccine, putting pressure on FDA [Internet]. STAT. 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 20]. Available from:

Triggle N. Covid-19 vaccine: First person receives Pfizer jab in UK. BBC [Internet]. 2020 Dec 8 [cited 2020 Dec 19]; Available from:

Triggle N, Schraer R. Covid-19 vaccine: Allergy warning over new jab. BBC [Internet]. 2020 Dec 9 [cited 2020 Dec 19]; Available from:

Firger J, Caldwell T. Third Alaskan health care worker has allergic reaction to Covid-19 vaccine. CNN [Internet]. 2020 Dec 19 [cited 2020 Dec 19]; Available from:

Higgins-Dunn N. FDA staff recommends watching for Bell’s palsy in Moderna and Pfizer vaccine recipients [Internet]. CNBC. 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 20]. Available from:

Knoll MD, Wonodi C. Oxford-Astra Zeneca COVID-19 vaccine efficacy. Lancet. 2020 Dec 8;S0140–6736(20)32623–4.

Mahase E. Covid-19: Vaccine trials need more transparency to enable scrutiny and earn public trust, say experts. BMJ. 2020 Oct 22;371:m4042.

Mullard A. How COVID vaccines are being divvied up around the world. Nature. 2020 Nov 30;d41586–020 – 03370–6.

Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy. Funding and manufacturing boost for UK vaccine programme [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 8]. Available from:

Yorke H, Rudgard O, Sheridan D, et al. Millions to receive Oxford coronavirus vaccine from Jan 4. The Daily Telegraph [Internet]. 2020 Dec 26 [cited 2020 Dec 28]; Available from:

Gamaleya Institute. Second interim analysis of clinical trial data showed a 91.4% efficacy for the Sputnik V vaccine on day 28 after the first dose; vaccine efficacy is over 95% 42 days after the first dose [Internet]. Sputnik V. 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 20]. Available from:

Burki TK. The Russian vaccine for COVID-19. Lancet Respir Med. 2020 Nov;8(11):e85–6.

Gamaleya Institute. Astra Zeneca will test using component of Russia’s Sputnik V in clinical trials of its own vaccine against coronavirus [Internet]. Sputnik V. 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 20]. Available from:

Johnson & Johnson. Johnson & Johnson prepares to resume phase 3 ENSEMBLE trial of its Janssen COVID-19 vaccine candidate in the U.s [Internet]. Johnson & Johnson. 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 19]. Available from:

Herper M, Goldhill O, Florko N, Facher L, Brodwin E. Johnson & Johnson Covid-19 vaccine study paused due to illness. STAT [Internet]. 2020 Oct 13 [cited 2020 Dec 19]; Available from:

ICH GCP Clinical Trials Registry. Clinical trial on COVID-19: Recombinant novel coronavirus vaccine (adenovirus type 5 vector), placebo [Internet]. ICH GCP. 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 20]. Available from:

National Institute of Health. Phase 3 trial of Novavax investigational COVID-19 vaccine opens [Internet]. NIH; 2020 Dec [cited 2020 Dec 29]. Available from:

Novavax. Novavax announces COVID-19 vaccine clinical development progress [Internet]. Novavax. 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 20]. Available from:

Parsons L. Novavax moves closer toward launch of US phase 3 COVID-19 vaccine trial. PMLive [Internet]. 2020 Dec 2 [cited 2020 Dec 20]; Available from:

Anonymous. Bio Farma to produce more than 16 million doses of COVID-19 vaccine per month. The Jakarta Post [Internet]. 2020 Oct 20 [cited 2020 Dec 20]; Available from:

Berkley S. COVAX explained [Internet]. GAVI. 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 8]. Available from:

World Health Organization. Global equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines estimated to generate economic benefits of at least US 153 billion in 2020–21, and US 466 billion by 2025, in 10 major economies, according to new report by the Eurasia Group [Internet]. WHO. 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 8]. Available from:

Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia, editor. Perencanaan vaksinasi COVID-19. In: Juknis Pelayanan Vaksin COVID-19. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia; 2020. p. 20–3.

Jusu MO, Glauser G, Seward JF, et al. Rapid establishment of a cold chain capacity of -60°C or colder for the STRIVE Ebola vaccine trial during the Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone. J Infect Dis. 2018 May 18;217(suppl_1):S48–55.

Satgas Penanganan Covid. Hasil Kajian [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 19]. Available from:

Harapan H, Wagner AL, Yufika A, et al. Acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine in Southeast Asia: A cross-sectional study in Indonesia. Front Public Health. 2020 Jul 14;8:381.

Adelayanti N. Minister of Research and Technology Builds “Merah Putih” Vaccine Acceleration Team [Internet]. Universitas Gadjah Mada. 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 20]. Available from:

Fox JP, Elveback L, Scott W, Gatewood L, Ackerman E. Herd immunity: basic concept and relevance to public health immunization practices. Am J Epidemiol. 1971 Sep;94(3):179–89.

Ma J, Earn DJD. Generality of the final size formula for an epidemic of a newly invading infectious disease. Bull Math Biol. 2006 Apr;68(3):679–702.

Wirawan IMA, Januraga PP. Forecasting COVID-19 transmission and healthcare capacity in Bali, Indonesia. J Prev Med Public Health. 2020 May;53(3):158–63.

Fine P, Eames K, Heymann DL. “Herd immunity”: A rough guide. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Apr 1;52(7):911–6.

Buss LF, Prete CA Jr, Abrahim CMM, et al. Three-quarters attack rate of SARS-CoV-2 in the Brazilian Amazon during a largely unmitigated epidemic. Science. 2020 Dec 8;eabe9728.

Sulaiman A. On dynamical analysis of the data-driven SIR model (COVID-19 outbreak in Indonesia) [Internet]. medRxiv; 2020. Available from:

Nuraini N, Khairudin K, Apri M. Modeling simulation of COVID-19 in Indonesia based on early endemic data. Communication in Biomathematical Sciences. 2020 Apr 17;3(1):1–8.

Endo A, Centre for the Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Diseases COVID-19 Working Group, Abbott S, Kucharski AJ, Funk S. Estimating the overdispersion in COVID-19 transmission using outbreak sizes outside China. Wellcome Open Res. 2020 Jul 10;5:67.

Morawska L, Milton DK, Others. It is time to address airborne transmission of COVID-19. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;6:ciaa939.

Choi S, Ki M. Estimating the reproductive number and the outbreak size of COVID-19 in Korea. Epidemiol Health. 2020 Mar 12;42:e2020011.

Mohd MH, Sulayman F. Unravelling the myths of R0 in controlling the dynamics of COVID-19 outbreak: A modelling perspective. Chaos Solitons Fractals. 2020 Sep;138:109943.

Hasan A, Susanto H, Kasim M, Nuraini N, Triany D, Lestari B. Superspreading in early transmissions of COVID-19 in Indonesia. medRxiv [Internet]. 2020; Available from:

Tkachenko AV, Maslov S, Elbanna A, Wong GN, Weiner ZJ, Goldenfeld N. Persistent heterogeneity not short-term overdispersion determines herd immunity to COVID-19 [Internet]. arXiv [q-bio.PE]. arXiv; 2020. Available from:

Hasan A, Nasution Y. A compartmental epidemic model incorporating probable cases to model COVID-19 outbreak in regions with limited testing capacity. medRxiv [Internet]. 2020; Available from:

World Health Organization. WHO SAGE roadmap for prioritizing uses of COVID-19 vaccines in the context of limited supply [Internet]. WHO. 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 20]. Available from:

Department of Health and Social Care. Priority groups for coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccination: advice from the JCVI, 2 December 2020 [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 20]. Available from:

Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia, editor. Perencanaan vaksinasi COVID-19. In: Juknis Pelayanan Vaksin COVID-19. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia; 2020. p. 20–3.

Ikatan Dokter Indonesia. Statistik anggota [Internet]. IDI. [cited 2020 Dec 20]. Available from:

PB PDGI [Internet]. [cited 2020 Dec 20]. Available from:

Badan Pusat Statistik. Persebaran perawat di Indonesia 2019 [Internet]. BPS. 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 20]. Available from:

Anonymous. 363 tenaga medis meninggal karena Covid-19, ini 3 saran dari IDI. [Internet]. 2020 Dec 16 [cited 2020 Dec 20]; Available from:

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Acta Medica Indonesiana