Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis may be the presenting symptoms or occur concomitantly within the onset of SLE. Our patient had SLE, meeting 4 of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinic classification criteria (hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, renal involvement, and positive for ANA test). Vasculitis due to endothelial cell injury mediated by immune-complex deposition is proposed to be the pathogenesis of CVST in SLE. Hypercoagulable state could be other etiology factor. Antiphospholipid antibodies were absent in our case as reported in some cases, emphasizing vasculitis as the underlying mechanism. Treatment of CVST in SLE consisting of anticoagulant, steroid, and immunosuppressant. This case elicits intriguing problem: CVST and thrombocytopenia. Anticoagulant treatment is proposed as the cornerstone treatment for CVST, however it was deferred due to risk of bleeding in thrombocytopenia. Steroid plays role in treatment of CVST in SLE, owing to its anti-inflammatory property. As shown in previous cases, the patient had remarkable response to high dose steroid treatment and eventually got anticoagulant after her platelet had increased. In summary, prompt diagnosis and treatment of CVST are important for a favorable prognosis.
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