Molecular Mechanism of Acute Sarcopenia in Elderly Patient with COVID - 19
Susilo A, Rumende CM, Pitoyo CW, et al. Coronavirus disease 2019: tinjauan literatur terkini Coronavirus disease 2019. 2020;7:45–67.
World Health Organizarion. WHO Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Dashboard. [accessed 2nd October 2021]. URL: https://covid19.who.int/
Satgas penanganan Covid-19. Data sebaran. [accessed 2nd October 2021]. URL: https://covid19.go.id/4.
Muhammad Khifzhon Azwar, Siti Setiati, Aulia Rizka, Ika Fitriana, Siti Rizny F. Saldi, Eka Dian Safitri. Clinical profile of elderly patients with COVID-19 hospitalised in Indonesia’s National General Hospital. Acta medica Indonesiana 52, 199–205.
Kang SJ, Jung SI. Age-related morbidity and mortality among patients with COVID-19. Infect Chemother. 2020;52:154.
United Nations. World population ageing 2019 highlights. New York: United Nations (2019).
Setiati, S., Dwimartutie, N. Buku ajar ilmu penyakit dalam. Jilid III. Edisi VI. Jakarta: Interna Publishing; 2014. p. 3719–27.
Welch CK, Hassan-Smith ZA, Greig CM, et al. Acute sarcopenia secondary to hospitalisation - an emerging condition affecting older adults. Aging and disease. 2018;9:151.
Zhang XM, et al. Sarcopenia as a predictor of mortality among the critically ill in an intensive care unit: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Geriatr. 2021;21:339.
Weijs P.J, et al. Low skeletal muscle area is a risk factor for mortality in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients. Crit Care. 2014;18:R12.
Kou HW, et al. Sarcopenia is an effective predictor of difficult-to-wean and mortality among critically ill surgical patients. PLoS ONE. 2019;14:e0220699.
Giraudo, C. et al. Reduced muscle mass as predictor of intensive care unit hospitalization in COVID-19 patients. PLoS ONE. 2021;16:e0253433.
C. F., Isirdi A, Brusasco C, et al. Low diaphragm muscle mass predicts adverse outcome in patients hospitalized for Covid-19 pneumonia. 2020.
Welch C, Greig CA, Masud T, Pinkney T, Jackson TA. Protocol for understanding acute sarcopenia: a cohort study to characterise changes in muscle quantity and physical function in older adults following hospitalisation. BMC Geriatr. 2020;20:239.
Aiello A, et al. Immunosenescence and its hallmarks: How to oppose aging strategically? A review of potential options for therapeutic intervention. Front. Immunol. 2019;10:2247.
Franceschi C, Campisi J. Chronic inflammation (inflammaging) and its potential contribution to age-associated diseases. J Gerontol Series A: Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014;69:S4–S9.
Perrotta F, et al. COVID-19 and the elderly: insights into pathogenesis and clinical decision-making. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2020;32:1599–608.
Diaz JH. Hypothesis: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers may increase the risk of severe COVID-19. J Travel Med. 2020;27:taaa041.
Baker, SA, Kwok S, Berry GJ, Montine TJ. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression increases with age in patients requiring mechanical ventilation. PLoS ONE. 2021;16:e0247060.
Rehman S, et al. Immunity, sex hormones, and environmental factors as determinants of COVID-19 disparity in women. Front Immunol. 2021;12:680845.
Ory J, et al. Understanding the complex relationship between androgens and SARS-CoV2. Urology. 2020;144:1–3.
Cruz-Jentoft AJ, et al. Sarcopenia: revised European consensus on definition and diagnosis. Age and Ageing. 2019;48:16–31.
Domingues R, Lippi A, Setz C, Outeiro TF, Krisko A. SARS-CoV-2, immunosenescence and inflammaging: partners in the COVID-19 crime. Aging. 2020;12:18778–89.
Thoma A, Akter-Miah T, Reade RL, Lightfoot AP. Targeting reactive oxygen species (ROS) to combat the age-related loss of muscle mass and function. Biogerontol. 2020;21:475–84.
Dodds RM, Granic A, Robinson SM, Sayer AA. Sarcopenia, long‐term conditions, and multimorbidity: findings from UK Biobank participants. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle. 2020;11:62–8.
Cleasby ME, Jamieson PM, Atherton PJ. Insulin resistance and sarcopenia: mechanistic links between common co-morbidities. Journal of Endocrinology. 2016;229:R67–R81.
Welch C, Greig C, Masud T, Wilson D, Jackson TA. COVID-19 and acute sarcopenia. Aging and disease. 2020;11:1345.
Conti P. Induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 and IL-6) and lung inflammation by COVID-19: anti-inflammatory strategies. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2020;34:1.
Stam H, Stucki G, Bickenbach J. Covid-19 and post intensive care syndrome: A call for action. J Rehabil Med. 2020;52:jrm00044.
Marzetti E, et al. Multiple pathways to the same end: Mechanisms of myonuclear apoptosis in sarcopenia of aging. Sci World J. 2010;10:340–9.
Ferrucci L, Fabbri E. Inflammageing: chronic inflammation in ageing, cardiovascular disease, and frailty. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2018;15:505–22.
Dupont-Versteegden EE. Apoptosis in muscle atrophy: Relevance to sarcopenia. Experimental Gerontology. 2005;40:473–81.
García LF. Immune response, inflammation, and the clinical spectrum of COVID-19. Front Immunol. 2020;11:1441.
Piotrowicz K, Gąsowski J, Michel JP, Veronese N. Post-COVID-19 acute sarcopenia: physiopathology and management. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2021;33: 2887–98.
Kortebein P, et al. Functional impact of 10 days of bed rest in healthy older adults. J Gerontol Series A: Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008;63:1076–81.
Yoshida T, Delafontaine P. Mechanisms of IGF-1-mediated regulation of skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy. Cells. 2020;9:1970.
Ali AM, Kunugi H. Physical frailty/sarcopenia as a key predisposing factor to Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its complications in older adults. BioMed. 2021;1:11–40.
Ilias I, et al. Covid-19 and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1: Study in critically and non-critically ill patients. Front Endocrinol. 2021;12:644055.
Guertin DA, et al. Ablation in mice of the mTORC components raptor, rictor, or mLST8 reveals that mTORC2 is required for signaling to Akt-FOXO and PKCα, but Not S6K1. Developmental Cell. 2006;11:859–71.
Schiaffino S, et al. CT-derived chest muscle metrics for outcome prediction in patients with COVID-19. Radiology. 2021;300:E328–E336.
Martone AM, et al. The incidence of sarcopenia among hospitalized older patients: results from the Glisten study: Hospitalization and risk of incident sarcopenia. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle. 2017;8: 907–14.
Zhang XM, et al. Frailty as a predictor of mortality among patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Geriatr. 2021;21:186.
Woolford SJ, et al. COVID-19 and associations with frailty and multimorbidity: a prospective analysis of UK Biobank participants. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2020;32:1897–905.
Yang Y, et al. The impact of frailty on COVID-19 outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 16 cohort studies. J Nutr Health Aging. 2021;25: 702–9.
Hewitt J, et al. The effect of frailty on survival in patients with COVID-19 (COPE): a multicentre, European, observational cohort study. The Lancet Public Health. 2020;5:e444–e451.
Hudson L, Chittams J, Griffith C, Compher C. Malnutrition identified by academy of nutrition and dietetics/american society for parenteral and enteral nutrition is associated with more 30-day readmissions, greater hospital mortality, and longer hospital stays: a retrospective analysis of nutrition A. J Parent Enter Nutr. 2018;42:892–7.
Vandewoude MFJ, Alish CJ, Sauer AC, Hegazi RA. Malnutrition-sarcopenia syndrome: is this the future of nutrition screening and assessment for older adults? J Aging Res. 2012;2012:1–8.
Cederholm T, Jägren C, Hellström K. Outcome of protein-energy malnutrition in elderly medical patients. Am J Med. 1995;98:67–74.
Locher JL, et al. Body mass index, weight loss, and mortality in community-dwelling older adults. J Gerontol Series A: Biol Sci Med Sci. 2007;62: 1389–92.
Newman AB, et al. Weight change and the conservation of lean mass in old age: the health, aging and body composition study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82:872–8.
Neumann SA, Miller MD, Daniels L, Crotty M. Nutritional status and clinical outcomes of older patients in rehabilitation. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2005;18: 129–36.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.