The Characteristic of Recurrent Malaria Episode: An Observational Study in Timika Papua

Novyan Lusiyana, Anggia Fitria Agustin

Abstract


Background: People living in malaria endemic areas are at risk of suffering from the recurrent malaria episodes. The recurrent episode of malaria can be determined by various factors and will bring some serious impacts on all life aspects. This study aims to identify malaria demographics and factors associated with the recurrent episodes of malaria in Timika, Papua. Methods: This observational study used medical record data from the Naena Muktipura Sub-District Health Center, Timika Papua in 2020. Plasmodium infection was identified based upon microscopic examination. Subjects were then categorized into positive and negative malaria followed by the determination of the positivity rate. Each case of malaria was traced regarding frequency, time, and type of Plasmodium. The recurrent episodes of malaria were defined as Plasmodium infections occurred more than once in a year. Demographic data including age, sex, and ethnicity were then analyzed using Chi square. Results: The incidence of recurrent malaria in Timika Papua was 16% with the highest positivity rate occurred in June. The most recurrent episodes of malaria were 2 episodes (77.2%) in which men were more at risk (OR 2.512). Meanwhile, ethnicity and age were not associated with recurrent episodes. Most of recurrent episodes of malaria are caused by the similar plasmodium species, particularly Plasmodium falciparum (82.25%) with the shortest interval between episodes of 14 days. Conclusion: Malaria is mostly experienced by men, of productive age and Javanese ethnicity. Men were found more at risk of experiencing recurrent episodes of malaria. The identification of these demographic factors is important to issue the policies on malaria elimination and malaria transmission termination in Timika, Papua.


Keywords


Malaria; epidemiological characteristic; recurrent episode; Timika Papua

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