Safety and Efficacy in Early Insulin Initiation as Comprehensive Therapy for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in Primary Health Care Centers

Agung Pranoto, Hermina Novida, Jongky H Prajitno, Askandar Tjokroprawiro


Aim: to analyze the safety and efficacy of early insulin initiation therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in primary health care provided by general practitioners (GPs) in Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia. Methods: pre-post study of ninety nine diabetic patients without previous insulin treatment with HbA1c levels >8% were involved in this study. The study was conducted in 10 primary health care centers in Surabaya between October 2011 to June 2012. Each patient received insulin therapy for 12 weeks. Laboratory examination was performed for each patient including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 hours post-prandial plasma glucose (2hPPG) and HbA1c examination before and after the study. Self monitoring blood glucose (SMBG) examination was conducted in order to adjust the insulin dose and prevent the incidence of hypoglycemia. Data was statistically analyzed using paired-T test. Results: FPG level was decreased from baseline data (209 mg/dL) to 152.07 mg/dL at the end of the study (Δ56.93 mg/dl; p=0.0001). The average of 2hPPG level was also decreased from 313.00 mg/dl to 220.72 mg/dL (Δ 92.28 mg/dL; p=0.0001). HbA1c was reduced from 11.60% at baseline to 8.95% at the end of study (Δ 2.65%; p=0.0001). Hypoglycemia was found in 6 patients (6.06%) in this study, but all events were mild and did not need to be admitted to hospital. Conclusion: the safety of insulin therapy iniatiation might be provided by GPs at primary health centers with significant efficacy and minimal side effects.

Key words: insulin, general practioner, primary health center.

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