Parenteral and Oral Anticoagulant Treatment for Hospitalized and Post-Discharge COVID-19 Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Rahajeng N Tunjungputri, Erpryta N Tetrasiwi, Nadia A Mulansari, Kuntjoro Harimurti, Erni J Nelwan

Abstract


Background: The use of anticoagulants has been endorsed by different hematological societies as coagulation abnormalities are key features of COVID-19 patients. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to provide the most recent update on available evidence on the clinical benefits and risk of oral and parenteral anticoagulants, as well agents with anticoagulant properties, in hospitalized and post-discharge COVID-19 patients.
Methods: This systematic review synthesizes data on the outcome of anticoagulation in hospitalized and post-discharge COVID-19 patients. Dichotomous variables from individual studies were pooled by risk ratio (RR) and their 95% confidence interval (95% CI) using the random-effects model. Meta-analyses were performed when feasible. Results: We included 32 studies from 2.815 unique citations, including 7 randomized clinical trials. A total of 33.494 patients were included. Outcomes measured include mortality and survival rates, the requirement for ICU care and mechanical ventilation. A pooled meta-analysis favors anticoagulant compared to no anticoagulant with reduced mortality in hospitalized patients (RR 0,55; 95%CI 0,43-0,66; p<0,001). Higher dose of anticoagulant also showed treatment benefit compared to standard prophylactic dose in selected populations (RR 0,68; 95%CI 0,40-0,96; p<0,001). Regular, pre-hospital anticoagulation prior to hospitalization yielded mixed result. There are currently no data on the benefit of anticoagulation on post-discharge COVID-19 patients. Conclusion: Determination of the presence of thrombosis in COVID-19 is important, as therapeutic dosage of anticoagulants, rather than prophylatic dose, would be indicated in such clinical situation. Anticoagulants were found to decrease the mortality of hospitalized COVID-19. The results from this study are important in the tailored treatment of COVID-19 patients. Further studies on the need for oral anticoagulation for outpatients or post-discharge is warranted. This study has been registered in PROSPERO database (CRD42020201418).

Keywords


COVID-19; anticoagulant; VTE; thromboprophylaxis

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