Extrapulmonary Manifestations COVID-19

Erni J Nelwan, Rahajeng N Tunjungputri, Erpryta N Tetrasiwi, Richella K Lauditta, Leonard Nainggolan


After being declared as a pandemic on March 11, 2020 by the World Health Organization, COVID-19 has affected 497 million people worldwide as of 9 April 2022. COVID-19 is a disease with a plethora of clinical manifestations, which extends to those beyond pulmonary signs and symptoms. Studies that report on the clinical presentation of COVID-19 rarely report specifically on cases with only extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19. Extrapulmonary clinical presentations of COVID-19 without pulmonary signs and symptoms is rare, and in such cases, COVID-19 is rarely suspected.

We herewith describe four patients with extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19, with positive SARS-COV-2 PCR when the test was performed for initial patient screening. The first patient is a 44-year-old female who developed painful ulcer with burning sensation at the lateral side of the tongue along with low grade fever. This symptom appeared after the initial complaints of coughing and nasal congestion subsided.  The second patient is a 37-year-old male, who complained of red eyes  with itchiness and increased tear production for 3 days before seeing an ophthalmologist. The third patient is a 44-year-old female who developed burning sensation and soreness on her throat upon swallowing with fever and chills. These symptoms appear consecutively without any respiratory complaint. The fourth patient is a previously healthy, 30-year-old female, with a normal weight and BMI, and without any comorbidity, cardiovascular risk and neither personal nor family history of cardiovascular disease. In these 4 patients, COVID-19 stomatitis, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis and COVID-19-associated atrial fibrillation was subsequently diagnosed, respectively.

In the pandemic stage of COVID-19, COVID-19 screening has often been routinely performed due to the high risk of transmission. However, the decrease in the number of COVID-19 cases may prompt physicians to perform SARS-COV-2 testing based on clinical suspicion. It is imperative to consider the likelihood of COVID-19 and perform SARS-COV-2 PCR in patients with extrapulmonary complaints that have persisting complaints despite treatment.


extrapulmonary; COVID-19


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